Consequences of Indo Pak War
War: War is a situation or a period of fighting between countries or groups of people. A war generally involves the use of weapons, a military organization and soldiers. War is a situation in which a nation enforces its rights by using force. Not every armed conflict is a war. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.
Among other issues, modern laws of war address declarations of war, acceptance of surrender and the treatment of prisoners of war; military necessity, along with distinction and proportionality; and the prohibition of certain weapons that may cause unnecessary suffering.
PURPOSE OF THE WAR LAWS
- Wars should be limited to achieving the political goals that started the war (e.g., territorial control) and should not include unnecessary destruction.
- Wars should be brought to an end as quickly as possible.
- People and property that do not contribute to the war effort should be protected against unnecessary destruction and hardship.
- To this end, laws of war are intended to mitigate the hardships of war by:
- Protecting both combatants and non-combatants from unnecessary suffering.
- Safeguarding certain fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, children, and civilians.
- Facilitating the restoration of peace.
In the mind of people the consequences of war are different like those which in this era are considered as normal though they also effect in a bad way/ gives adversial effects. Which are :
CONSEQUENCES OF NORMAL WAR
1) Vast destruction of homes, lands, properties.
2) shortage of food, water and other basic requirements of the people
3) countries economic destruction
4) health problems, causalities at large.
5) complete blackout specially at night
6) living into the trenches
7) cruelty by enemies to you and your family like rape cases, traumatic acts, psychological issues, massacre at large.
8) psychological issues even if someone lives.
9) migration and they sail: mostly die.
But now situation is different from 1947, both the countries are equipped with nuclear weapons and in result of those weapons the whole world is going to suffer if this war occurs.
CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR WAR
In 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed by the Americans. By today’s standards, those two bombs were several hundred times smaller than the nukes that India and Pakistan possess. Almost 70 years after that catastrophe, many babies and even cattle in both the Japanese cities are born deformed. So a nuclear attack is not just an immediate disaster, but a long term one whose effects will pervade the earth hundreds of years after it has happened.
If India and Pakistan used even a few nukes from their huge stockpiles, the damage will not only destroy both countries, but the radioactive fallout from the blasts will permanently damage the entire planet, be it the geography, climate, human beings, wild animals, flora and fauna, oceans, everything will be affected.
In fact, several studies have modeled the global impact of a “limited” ten-day nuclear war in which India and Pakistan each exchange fifty 15-kilo ton nuclear bombs equivalent in yield to the Little uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
Their findings concluded that spillover would in no way be “limited,” directly impacting people across the globe.
And those results are merely a conservative baseline, as India and Pakistan are estimated to possess over 260 warheads.
The Little bomb in Hiroshima alone killed around 100,000 Japanese—between 30 to 40 percent of Hiroshima’s population—and destroyed 69 percent of the buildings in the city. But Pakistan and India host some of the most populous and densely populated cities on the planet, with population densities of Calcutta, Karachi and Mumbai at or exceeding 65,000 people per square mile. Thus, even low-yield bombs could cause tremendous casualties.
A study estimates that the immediate effects of the bombs—the fireball, over-pressure wave, radiation burns etc.—would kill twenty million people. An earlier study estimated a hundred 15-kiloton nuclear detonations could kill twenty-six million in India and eighteen million in Pakistan—and concluded that escalating to using 100-kiloton warheads, which have greater blast radius and overpressure waves that can shatter hardened structures, would multiply death tolls four-fold.
Many survivors of the initial explosion would suffer slow, lingering deaths due to radiation exposure. The collapse of healthcare, transport, sanitation, water and economic infrastructure would also claim many more lives. A nuclear blast could also trigger a deadly firestorm.
Radioactive fallout would also be disseminated across the globe. The fallout from the Chernobyl explosion, for example, wounds its way westward from Ukraine into Western Europe, exposing 650,000 persons and contaminating 77,000 square miles. The long-term health effects of the exposure could last decades. India and Pakistan’s neighbors would be especially exposed, and most lack healthcare and infrastructure to deal with such a crisis.
Studies in 2008 and 2014 found that of one hundred bombs that were fifteen-kilotons were used, it would blast five million tons of fine, sooty particles into the stratosphere, where they would spread across the globe, warping global weather patterns for the next twenty-five years.
The particles would block out light from the sun, causing surface temperatures to decrease an average of 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit across the globe, or 4.5 degrees in North American and Europe. Growing seasons would be shortened by ten to forty days, and certain crops such as Canadian wheat would simply become unviable. Global agricultural yields would fall, leading to rising prices and famine.
The particles may also deplete between 30 to 50 percent of the ozone layer, allowing more of the sun’s radiation to penetrate the atmosphere, causing increased sunburns and rates of cancer and killing off sensitive plant-life and marine plankton, with the spillover effect of decimating fishing yields.
Taken together, these outcomes mean even a “limited” India-Pakistan nuclear war would significantly affect every person on the globe
SOME BASIC NUCLEAR EFFECTS
Nuclear Winter : this is known as the effects of smoke and soot arising from burning wood, plastics, and petroleum fuels in nuclear-devastated cities. It was speculated that the intense heat would carry these particulates to extremely high altitudes where they could drift for weeks and block out all but a fraction of the sun’s light.
In one model, the average temperature of Earth following a full thermonuclear war falls for several years by 7 to 8 degrees Celsius on average. Early Cold War-era studies suggested that billions of humans would nonetheless survive the immediate effects of nuclear blasts and radiation following a global thermonuclear war.
It has been argued that even a relatively small-scale nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan involving 100 Hiroshima yield (15 kilotons) weapons, could cause a nuclear winter and kill more than a billion people.
Nuclear Famine: It is difficult to estimate the number of casualties that would result from nuclear winter, but it is likely that the primary effect would be global famine (known as Nuclear Famine), wherein mass starvation occurs due to disrupted agricultural production and distribution
Electromagnetic pulse : disable the electronics we use. Likewise in hospitals, water, sanitation, gas and electricity
Nuclear fallout is the residual radioactive dust and ash propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear explosion. Fallout is usually limited to the immediate area, and can only spread for hundreds of miles from the explosion site if the explosion is high enough in the atmosphere. Fallout may get entrained with the products of a pyro cumulus cloud and fall as black rain (rain darkened by soot and other particulates).
- It will create radioactive hot spots for up to 5 years after the initial explosion.
- Fallout and black rain may contaminate waterways, agriculture, and soil.
- In acute doses over a short amount of time radiation will lead to prodromal syndrome, bone marrow death, central nervous system death and gastrointestinal death.
- Cancer becomes the main health risk. Long term radiation exposure can also lead to in utero effects on human development and transgenerational genetic damage.