National Accountability Bureau (NAB)
NAB (National Accountability Bureau) is the top anti-corruption organisation in Pakistan which was created to eliminate the scourge of corruption in the country. National Accountability Bureau is Federal Institution which was created in 1999 by Pervez Musharraf. It operates under National Accountability Ordinance (NAO) 1999 and its aim is to eradicate corruption and economic terrorism. NAB itself describes its mission officially in these words, “The National Accountability Bureau is to work to eliminate corruption through a comprehensive approach encompassing prevention, awareness, monitoring and combating”.
Chairmen of NAB
According to NAO 1999, the Chairman of NAB shall be appointed by the President of Pakistan in consultation with the Leader of the House and Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly. It means Prime Minister and Opposition Leader of National Assembly have real power to appoint the Chairman of NAB.
The NAB Chairman is appointed for the non-extendable period of four years. Once appointed he cannot be removed easily because he can only be removed on the grounds of removal of Judge of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Qualifications for the person appointed as Chairman NAB are;
- He is retired Chief Justice or Judge of Supreme Court or Chief Justice of High Court
- He is retired officer of the Armed Forces of Pakistan equivalent to the rank of a Lieutenant General
- He is retired Federal Officer in BPS 22
Followings are the person who remained Chairmen of NAB in the past;
- Commodore Mohammad Zakaullah (1999-2003)
- Lt-Gen Muhammad Amjad (2003-2005)
- Lt-Gen Shahid Aziz (2005-2007)
- Naveed Ahsan (2007-2010)
- Deedar Hussain (2010-2011)
- Admiral Fasih Bokhari (2011-2013)
- Qamar Zaman Chaudhry (2013-2017)
- Justice (R) Javiad Iqbal (2017- )
NAB’s Powers to arrest accused
The Chairman NAB has the power to direct the accused be arrested during investigation of the case. The Chairman NAB or an officer of NAB authorized by him may submit a reference before the court. NAB has power to arrest and detain accused for the purpose of inquiry and investigation for a period not exceeding 90 days. It means that NAB has power to get physical remand of accused for up to 90 days. The Chairman NAB has the authority to declare and notify and place as a Police Station or a sub-jail at his discretion.
National Accountability Court
In this Ordinance judge of NAB court shall be appointed by the President of Pakistan in consultation with the Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned Province, on such terms and conditions as may be determined by the President. Tenure of judge of NAB court shall be three years from the date of his initial appointment.
Punishment of Corruption under NAB
Section 10 describes the punishment of corruption and corrupt practices which is imprisonment for term up to 14 years. According to section 10 of National Accountability Ordinance 1999, “(a) A holder of public office, or any other person who commits the offence of corruption and corrupt practices shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to 14 years and with fine and such of the assets and pecuniary resources of such holder of public office or person, as are found to be disproportionate to the known source of his income or which are acquired by money obtained through corruption and corrupt practices whether in his name or in the name of any of his dependents, or benamidars shall be forfeited to the appropriate Government or the concerned bank or financial institution as the case may be.
National Accountability Ordinance 1999
Under NAO 1999, NAB is established along with NAB courts. This legislation provides complete details about the establishment of NAB and all process of NAB court. It is substantial as well as procedural law. You can download the complete National Accountability Ordinance 1999 by clicking on the link below in PDF file format.
Regional Offices of NAB
The Headquarters of NAB is in Islamabad. There are seven regional offices of NAB throughout Pakistan;
NAB Organisational Structure